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英汉词典165

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  •    正因,

      direct cause

      正因佛性

      The true cause of awakening; endlessly debated from the North-South periods onwards and defined variously as emptiness, tathata^ 如, a^laya-vijna^na 阿赖耶识, mind, and the like.

      正语

      Correct speech. Not lying, not rumoring, not speaking in a way that causes problems between others. This is the third item in the eightfold path 八正道.

      正知

      To know well; to understand correctly.

      正智

      Correct wisdom; sagely wisdom; the wisdom that perceives reality as it is (samyak-sam!bodhi, samyak-jn——a^na).

      证

      'realization,' 'actualization.' (1) Awakening. To clarify. To know clearly within oneself, without a doubt. To manifest the unsurpassed principle within oneself. To witness, or prove (sa^ks!a^t-karana). (2) To realize the result; to attain the fruit; to reach to; to experience (adhigama). (3) A witness. (4) To realize, to certify.

      证成

      To complete, perfect, consummate.

      证成道理

      (1) To make perfect sense in one's explanation of a matter. (2) The correct principle which is consummated by the buddhas. [瑜伽论T 1579.30.501b]

      证道歌

      金刚乘行者随顺觉受及悟境而自然唱造的歌。通常是九字一句。

      证得

      (1) To gain, to get, acquire. To realize, to perfect, consummate; to come to (adhigama). (2) To experience, realize or comprehend directly (pra^pti-sa^ks!a^t-krti). (3) Awaken, undergo enlightenment.

      证见

      The fully actualized view of reality experienced by the buddhas, as contrasted to the views based on faith and understanding 信解 held by unenlightened sentient beings. 

      证悟

      REALIZATION

      证验

      (1) To bear witness; to verify. (2) Verification, proof, guarantee.

      证自证分

      'Rewitnessing aspect.' One of the four aspects of perception in Consciousness-only theory according to Dharmapa^la. The function of consciousness of cognizing the fact that it has perceived an object. Also, checking prior awareness for its validity.

      

      To quarrel, dispute, argue, remonstrate.

      郑道传

      Chong Tojon(Sambong 三峰; 1342-1398). A major opponent of Buddhism at the end of the Koryo period. He was a student of Zhuxi thought and with ChengZhu Neo-Confucian philosophy the basis of his anti-Buddhist polemic, criticized Buddhism as being nihi^istic and antinomian.

      知藏

      canon prefect

      知见

      (jn——a^na-dar/sana). (1) Seeing with wisdom. An understanding based on knowledge. [法华经 T 262.9.7b18](2) The understanding of knowing phenomena through having awakened to them. (3) A synonym for 明行足, 'one perfected in wisdom and action', one of the ten epithets of the Buddha. (4) Wisdom and insight; knowledge and views.

      知见力

      The power of insight.

      知觉

      Guess, infer, imagine, speculate (mistakenly). Discrimination, thought (tarka).

      知客

      The job in the monastery of receiving guests. The fourth level of the six supervisory positions.

      知讷

      Chinul (1158-1210); Korean monk of the Koryo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Son Buddhism. Chinul entered the world at a time when the sangha was in a state of crisis, in terms of external appearance as well as internal issues of doctrine. Deeply disturbed at the degree of corruption that had crept into the sangha, he sought to establish a new movement within Korean Son which he called the "sama^dhi and prajn——a^ society" (定慧社) whose goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. Chinul eventually accomplished this mission with the founding of the Songgwangsa monastery (松广寺) at Mt. Chogye (曹溪山).

      One major issue that had fermented long in Chinese Ch'an and which had received special focus from Chinul, was the relationship between so-called "gradual" 渐 and "sudden" 钝 methods in practice and enlightenment. Drawing upon various Chinese treatments of this topic, most importantly those by Zongmi (宗密; 780-841) and Dahui, (大慧; 1089-1163) Chinul came up with his famous "sudden enlightenment followed by gradual practice" 顿悟渐修 dictum. From Dahui Chinul also incorporated the kwanhwa (观话 "observing the key phrase of the kong'an") method into his practice. This form of meditation is the main method taught in Korean Son down to modern times.

      Chinul did not undergo his enlightenment experiences as the result of the classical so-called personal "mind-to-mind transmission" between teacher and student as characterized in the Son school. Rather, each of his three enlightenment experiences came in connection with the contemplation of a passage in a Buddhist text. In his final articulation of the issue, Chinul was highly influenced by the explanation of the relationship between Son and Kyo provided by the Tang Huayan master Li Tongxuan (李通玄; 635-730). Chinul's phi^osophical resolution of this issue brought a deep and lasting impact on Korean Buddhism. Chinul produced a number of important disciples who passed on his teaching and continued to work within his discourse. His major works include: Encouragement to Practice: The Compact of the Sama^dhi and Prajn——a^ Community 劝修定慧结社文(one fasc.), Moguja's Secrets on Cultivating the Mind 牧牛子修心诀 (one fasc.), Straight Talk on the True Mind 真心直说 (one fasc.), The Complete and Sudden Attainment of Buddhahood 圆顿成佛论 (one fasc.), Resolving Doubts About Observing the Hwadu 看话决疑论 (one fasc.), Admonitions to Beginning Students 诫初心学人文 (one fasc.), Afterword to the Sixth Patriarch's Dharma Jewel Platform Sutra 六祖法宝坛经跋, Excerpts from the Dharma Collection and Special Practice Record 法集别行录节要并入私记, Essentials of the Flower Ornament Scripture 华严论节要 (three fascicles). For background on Chinul and translations of most of the above works, see Buswell (1983); see also Keel (1984).

      知识

      (1) Consciousness, awareness. (2) The content of what is known; knowledge, information. (3) An eminent monk. A Buddhist teacher. An exemplary practitioner with whom one is intimate. (4) A friend, an acquaintance.

      知事

      The six officers of a Chan monastery.

      知真仁宝哲/赤江仁宝哲

      TRIJANG RINPOCHE

      知足

      (1) To be aware that one has had enough--to be satisfied (sam!tus!t!i, tus!t!i). (2) A term for Tus!ita Heaven 兜率天. This term originally comes from Chapter 33 of the Daodejing.

      执

      'Attachment.' Deluded attachment to things. (abhinive/sa).

      执,

      attachment

      执着 贪爱 执

      attachment

      执持

      (1) The function of the mind to perceive anything as its object. (2) A firm, unscattered mind of faith or concentration. (3) To hold something in the hand. (4) The seventh or eighth consciousness.

      执持识

      The maintaining consciousness. See a^da^na-vijn——a^na 阿陀那识.

      执事

      executive

      执受

      (1) To cognize the existence of external objects, and on this basis, arouse sensation. To sense, to grasp (Skt. upa^di; Tib. len pa).  (2) To maintain mindfulness of the name of Amita^bha Buddha.

      执着

      (abhinive/sa, nibhandhana); 'attachment.' Holding to things and being unable to let go. Grasping. To think about something and be unable to forget about it.

      直说

      (1) To explain directly. The Buddha's direct explanation of the truth. (2) To explain (too) quickly, without fully inquiry into the matter.

      直往

      Directly proceeding, which describes the nature of the bodhisattva 菩萨 practices, which do not rely on the attainment of purity in the way of the practitioners of the two vehicles 二乘. 

      直下

      Directly, immediately, right here, just like that.

      值

      (1) To meet. To meet and revere the Buddha. (2) To value.

      止

      基本的禅修方法。 修“止”的时候,行者通常盘腿而生,专注于呼吸并观察心的活动。

      止/奢摩他

      SAMATHA    参考: QUIESCENCE

      止病

      The "sickness" (imbalance) of overly emphasizing stabilizing meditation, and believing that it in itself can lead to enlightenment. This problem is discussed in Chapter 10 of the Yuanjue jing 圆觉经.

      止持

      Doing good by the practice of ceasing to do evil. Keeping the precepts that are concerned with restraint.

      止犯

      To be wrong, or create bad karma by "not-doing" at the time when there is something positive to be done.

      止观

      (1) The two basic forms of Buddhist meditation (/samatha-vipa/syana^): /samatha 止 (奢摩他) and vipa/syana^ 观 (毗婆舍那). The former is usually rendered into English with such terms as 'stabilizing meditation' and 'calm abiding.' It refers to meditative practices aimed at the stilling of thought and development of concentration 定. The latter is translated with such terms as 'analysis' or 'clear observation' and refers to the application of one's concentration power to the embodiment of a Buddhist description of reality, such as dependent origination 缘起. (2) An abbreviation of the title of the Mohe zhiguan 摩诃止观.

      止观辅行传弘决

      The Zhiguan fuxing zhuan hongjue; 40 fasc. T 1912.46.141a-446c.

      止息

      (1) To bring about the cessation of suffering. (2) A Chinese translation of the Sanskrit /samatha 奢摩他 (shemata). (3) A Chinese translation of /sramana 沙门.

      止住

      Calm abiding; /samatha, (upasthita).

      止住修/定修

      FIXATIC MEDITATION

      止作二持

      "Two observances of doing and not-doing." Two ways of maintaining or cultivating goodness. One is by negating of stopping evil, the other is by creating or doing good actions.

      只陀太子

      Also written 只多太子. Prince Jeta, the son of King Prasenajit, both of whom were devout followers of S/a^kyamuni. Jeta, together with Sudatta 须达, provided the land for one of the earliest Buddhist temples.

      旨

      (1) Sweet, tasty. (2) Object, aim, gist. (3) Teaching, instruction. Purport, theme. (4) Skillful.

      指

      (1) A finger (an%guli), a thumb. (2) Same as 指节 "finger-joint"--an ancient Indian unit of length, like an inch.

      指归

      The import, gist, main point, or meaning of a text or teaching.

      指空

      Zhikong(?-1363) An Indian meditation master who traveled to East Asia, and had a strong influence on Korean Son. He became a monk at an early age and studied Buddhism in various places during his travels. He eventually settled in Yangzhou at Yanjing 燕京, where he became involved with Korean monks such as Hyegun 慧勤. Because of these contacts he eventually traveled and taught in Korea.

      指南

      To teach, guide, instruct. Literally "point South" is derived from the indication of a compass.

      指事

      The short title of the 华严五教章指事.

      指摘

      (1) To point out. (2) Disclose, expose.

      至

      (1) To reach, to arrive at, to extend to. (2) Very, extreme. (3) The greatest, the best, the ultimate. Highest class or rank. (4) Reach, attain, result in, lead to.

      至德

      Translation of Jn——a^nagupta, commonly known by the transcription of 阇那崛多.

      至相大师

      Zhixiang dashi; the name of the Huayan master Zhiyan.

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