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  •    至相寺

      The Zhixiang si; residence of Jingyü located on Zhongnan shan 终南山 near the Sanjie reliquary of the Baita si 百塔寺.


      (1) To pay close attention; to concentrate. (2) A sincere mind; sincerity; one's true intention.


      'Arriving in all places' The fourth stage of the 'ten dedications of merit' (十回向) in the path of bodhisattvahood. The stage where the bodhisattva enters all Buddha-lands, and cultivates practice together with all Buddhas.


      JE RINPOCHE / JETSUN RINPOCHE / JE LAMA    备注: 对宗喀巴祖师的尊称


      JE / JETSUN / JETZUN   备注: 对高僧大德的尊称


      Chian (posthumously named Hwansong 唤醒 1664-1729). Traveled throughout Korea and spend time at numerous temples. During his tenure as master at Kumsan-sa 金山寺, he initiated, as part of his program, a set textual study track. The most basic, called the Four Teachings Course (sagyo-kwa 四经科) included the four seminal scriptures of the Sinitic Maha^ya^na doctrinal tradition: the Sutra of the Heroic March Sama^dhi 首楞严经, the Awakening of Faith 起信论, the Diamond Sutra 金刚经 and the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圆觉经. This track of study would have a permanent influence on the style of training for Korean monks and nuns, who still nowadays follow a similar course of study.


      Translation of Jn——a^nagupta, commonly known by the transcription of 阇那崛多.


      (1) Suppress, restrain. (2) Govern, rule. (3) To stop, to end.




      (1) To govern, to rule, to manage, to control, to direct, to regulate, to put in order. (2) To quell, subdue, punish. (3) To punish a monk who has broken the precepts. (Pali ka^retabba) (4) To quell afflictions through religious practice. (vipaks!a, pratipaks!a). In this specific technical usage, it is distinguished from the term 断, which means to totally eradicate 灭. 治 is in this sense synonymous to 伏, which refers to the ability to subdue afflictions, even though they are not completely eradicated. [四教仪注, 二障义HPC 1.802b] (5) To chase away demons.


      The path of overcoming of afflictions.


      The second of the "ten abidings" in the fifty-two stage path of the bodhisattva. The "abiding of nurturing." The stage of always practicing the view of emptiness, and clearing and nurturing the mind-ground.


      To quell, extirpate, sever, subdue (negative habits, defilement, etc.). 


      (1) Disposition, nature, quality, personality. (2) Matter, substance, elements, essence. (3) A term for response body 应身.


      'Material obstruction.' The Ina-Zbility to occupy the same place at the same time (a special quality of 'form' (ru^pa). One thing obstructing another thing. Material hindrance.


      A Chinese translation of mohuoluojia 摩睺罗迦(mahoraga).


      Honest, upright, straightforward (Skt. saurabhya, a^rjava; Tib. gram pa). 


      (1) To cause, to bring about; to result in. (2) To retire, to resign. (3) To extend to, to apply to. (4) To send, to convey, to transmit. (5) Ultimate, exhaustive, final.


      <p>(1) Wisdom; the function of the intellect. (dhi^, buddhi, abhijn——a^, mati; Tib. shes pa) Intelligence. (2) A wise person. (3) Understanding, knowledge (jn——a^na). (4) Satori, intuitive wisdom, intuitive knowledge. The non-discriminating knowledge of the Yoga^ca^ra school. The intuitive knowledge that recognizes that all things have no real substantiality. (5) That which permeates and functions both as original knowing and discriminated knowing.


      The wisdom and compassion of the Buddha (jn——a^na-karun!a^)


      The perfection of omniscience--to be able to understand the myriad phenomena of the universe exactly as they are (jn——a^na-pa^ramita^). One of the ten pa^ramita^s 十波罗蜜.


      Zhizang, at least three of whom are mentioned in reference sources. (1) One of the three great dharma-masters of the Liang 梁. He is said to have left home at the age of 16, entering Xinghuang si 兴皇寺 in 470. After studying together with SengYuan 僧远 and Sengyou 僧祐 under Hongzong 弘宗 at Dinglin si 定林寺, he became known for his scholarly accomplishments, and subsequently traveled to many regions of China, lecturing on the buddhadharma, whi^e at the same time maintaining a strict regimen of religious training for himself. He received the vow of faith from Emperor Wu 武帝 of Liang, and then spent a period of time lecturing at Pengchengsi 彭城寺. After this, he retired to a life of seclusion at Kaishan si 开善寺, and passed away in 522 at the age of 65. Although he is said to have written numerous treatises and commentaries on Buddhist canonical works, these have not survived to the present. (2) Chinese Chan teacher of the Tang period, originally from Qianhua 虔化. He entered the Buddhist order at a young age, and soon traveled to Jianyang 建阳, where he became the student of Mazu Daoyi 马祖道一, receiving the mind-seal together with Baizhang Huaihai 百丈怀海. He subsequently taught Chan at 西堂寺 in 虔州. He is known for having taught students from various foreign countries, including such important later masters as Toui 道义, Hongch'ok 洪陟 and Hyech'ol 慧彻from the Silla dynasty in Korea. He passed away in 814 at the age of eighty. (3) (7th century) Member of the Sanlun 三论 school from the Wu 吴 dynasty. Began his Buddhist studies as a youth under the tutelage of Huiguan 慧灌 from Yuanxing si 元兴寺. Later entered the Tang to study under Jizang 吉藏, where he become known as an expert of Sanlun phi^osophy. Later on studied and taught at Falong si 法隆寺. His dates of birth and death are not known. He was the teacher of Daoci 道慈, Zhiguang 智光 and Liguang 礼光.


      Chich'ing (1113-1192); a major Hwaom scholar of the Koryo dynasty.


      ChidatsuA Japanese monk of the Hosso^ sect. His dates of birth and death, family name and residence are uncertain. He went to China, together with Chitsu^ (智通) and studied Consciousness-only with Xuanzang. After returning to Japan, he lived at Gangoji and taught the doctrine of the Hosso^ school.


      The perfection of omniscience.


      The Maha^prajn——a^pa^ramita^-/sa^stra; see Dazhidulun 大智度论 (T 1509.25.57c-756b).


      Wisdom, knowledge, intelligence.


      Chiho^The third transmitter of the Faxiang 法相 sect to Japan. He went to China fifty-one years after Doshiyo, together with two other monks. Since Xuanzang 玄奘 and Kuiji had already passed away, he studied with the patriarch Jizhou (智周). After returning to Japan, he taught the doctrines of Consciousness-only to Giin.


      The light of wisdom.


      The Zhiguang mie yiqie yezhang tuoluoni jing 1 fasc. (T 1398.21.914-915); alternative translation of the Zhiju tuoluonijing 智炬陀罗尼经.


      (Skt. prajn——a^, Pali pan——n——a^): 'wisdom.' An important aspect of the correctly functioning (enlightened) mind that perceives things in their true nature, and therefore acts to sever delusion and harmful habituation. One of the 'six perfections' 六波罗蜜.


      The greatest in wisdom--an appellation given to S/a^riputra 舍利弗子, one of S/a^kyamuni's ten most prominent disciples.


      The power of (the Buddha's) wisdom.




      (1) To accumulate wisdom. (2) The name of one of the sons of the buddha Greatest in Penetrating Wisdom 大通知胜佛. (3) A monk of the Eastern Qin. See FKS.


      The Zhiju tuoluonijing; Skt. Jn——a^nolka^-dha^ran!i^; Tib. ye shes ta la la shes bya ba'i gzungs 'gro ba thams cad yongs su sbyong ba (To.522/848); (Dha^ran!i^ of the Lamp of Knowledge). (1) 1 fasc. (T 1397.21.913-914), Dha^ran!i^ of the Lamp of Knowledge 智炬陀罗尼经, trans. Devapraj——na^ 提云般若 et al.

      (2) 1 fasc. (T 1398.21.914-915), Dha^ran!i^ of the Gnostic Lamp which Destroys All Karmic Hindrances (*Jn——a^nolka^dha^ran!i^-sarvadurgatipari/sodhani^) 智光灭一切业障陀罗尼经, trans. Da^napa^la 施护. Khotanese text: Monumenta Serindica v.4, p.356 ff. BGBT4/70. The Zhiju tuoluonijing; Skt. Jn——a^nolka^-dha^ran!i^; Tib. ye shes ta la la shes bya ba'i gzungs 'gro ba thams cad yongs su sbyong ba (To.522/848); (Dha^ran!i^ of the Lamp of Knowledge). (1) 1 fasc. (T 1397.21.913-914), Dha^ran!i^ of the Lamp of Knowledge 智炬陀罗尼经, trans. Devapraj——na^ 提云般若 et al.

      (2) 1 fasc. (T 1398.21.914-915), Dha^ran!i^ of the Gnostic Lamp which Destroys All Karmic Hindrances (*Jn——a^nolka^dha^ran!i^-sarvadurgatipari/sodhani^) 智光灭一切业障陀罗尼经, trans. Da^napa^la 施护. Khotanese text: Monumenta Serindica v.4, p.356 ff. BGBT4/70.


      Zhi^un; an abbreviation for Dazhidulun 大智度论 (T 1509).


      a Tang scholar who compiled one of the most important catalogs of the Chinese Buddhist canon, entitled Kaiyuan shijiao lu 开元释教录, which he completed in 730.


      The essence of wisdom. Wisdom as such; wisdom in itself.


      Chitsu^A Japanese monk of the Hosso^ sect. In 657,in accord with an imperial decree, he went together with Chidatsu (智达), taking a Korean boat to China. He studied with Xuanzang 玄奘, learning the Faxiang 法相 doctrine. Upon returning to Japan, he taught as the second line of transmission of the Hosso^ sect in Japan. Subsequently, he founded Kannonji in Izumi (Osaka). bski446 (Credit) cmuller(entry)


      (1) The luminosity of Buddhahood. (2) In the Awakening of Faith 大乘起信论, one of the "six coarse marks," the "Mark of Awareness." The function of awareness which leads to discernment of purity and impurity, giving rise to like and dislike.


      Wisdom and its associated practices. In the context of the six paramitas, this would be prajn——a^pa^ramita^ and the other remaining paramitas of charity, moral discipline, forbearance, effort and concentration.


      Chiom (1464-1534) A Korean Son monk of the Choson.


      Zhiyan (602-668). A Tang dynasty Huayan scholar-monk who was later designated as second patriarch of the official Chinese Huayan lineage. He was the student of Dushun 杜顺, and the teacher of Fazang 法藏 and Uisang 义湘. He was commonly known during his lifetime as the great master Zhixiang 至相大师 and "the Venerable from Yunhua云华尊者. He began to study with Dushun from the age of 12 at Zhixiang temple 至相寺in Mt. Zhongnan 终南山, and over time become well versed in the spectrum of Maha^ya^na theories. He received the full precepts at the age of twenty, after which he delved into such texts as the Four Part Vinaya 四分律、Abhidharma-ko/sa 俱舍论, Satyasiddhi-/sa^stra, 成实论, Dilun 十地论, Nirvana Sutra 涅槃经 and so forth. Later on, he focused his studies on the Huayanjing 华严经 and its theoretical issues, writing extensively. Among his works are the Dafangguang fo huayanjing souxuan fenqi tongzhi fanggui 大方广佛华严经搜玄分齐通智方轨 (ten fasc.), the Huayanjing neizhangmen dengza kongmu 华严经内章门等杂孔目 (four fasc.), the Huayan wushiyao wenda 华严五十要问答 (two fasc.), the Huayan yisheng shixuanmen 华严一乘十玄门 (one fasc.), the Jingang panruo boluomijing lueshu 金刚般若波罗蜜经略疏 (two fasc.), the Wuxing shelun shu 无性摄论疏 (four fasc.), and so forth. His biography can be found in the twenty-fifth fascicle of the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks 续高僧传. For a full-length study, see Gimello (1976).


      The eye of wisdom possessed by the buddhas, as contrasted with the physical eye 肉眼 of unenlightened sentient beings. (buddha-caksus)


      Zhiyi (538-597). Technically considered as the fourth patriarch, but actually the de-facto founder of the Tiantai (天台) sect in China. Zhiyi is famous for being the first in the history of Chinese Buddhism to elaborate a complete, critical and systematic classification of the Buddhist teachings, in order to explain the seemingly contradictory doctrines of Buddhism. He is also regarded as the first major figure to make a significant break from the Indian tradition, to form an indigenous Chinese system. He received his most important influences from his first teacher, Nanyue Huisi 南岳 慧思 (515-677), a meditation master who would later be listed as Zhiyi's predecessor in the Tiantai lineage. After a period of study with Huisi, he spend some time working in the southern capital of Jinling, after which he retired to Tiantai mountain for intensive study and practice with a group of disciples, adapting the Indian meditation practice of zhiguan (止观) into his sytem. Among his many important works are the Mohe zhiguan 摩诃止观 and the Liu miaofamen 六妙法门. Also known as 天台大师. Among the works attributed to him (although many may have been written by his disciples), about thirty are extant. FKS5038 DFB ZGD843c Iwa561 Ina-Z90 Ina-Z103 Ina-Z354 JE30a/31 Yo51 ZD188 bski437 (Credit) cmuller(entry)


      Chiun; a Korean Son monk of the early Choson period. Exact dates unknown. He is the author of the Chongmyol sijung non 寂灭示众论 (HPC 7.280-286)


      The function of wisdom.


      Cessation (nirva^na) attained by the full understanding of dependent origination. Equivalent in meaning to zemie 择灭. "Extinction by analysis."


      The "hindrance of wisdom" also known as the suozhizhang 所知障 or "hindrance by what is known" (jn——eya-a^varan!a). One of the two hindrances, the other being the hindrance of defilements 烦恼障. The hindrance to wisdom is considered to be much more profound, affecting religious practitioners of high attainment, whereas the hindrance of defilement affects lower-level practitioners.


      A learned person, a worthy, a scholar (pandita).




      Zhizhou (668-723) A teacher of the lineage of the Faxiang 法相 in China. He is considered as either the third or fourth patriarch of the sect depending upon whether Xuanzang 玄奘 is considered to be the first. He wrote the Cheng weishi lun yanmi (成唯识论演秘). His Yanmi (演秘), Kuiji's Shouyao (成唯识论枢要) and Shouji (成唯识论述记) and Chengweishi^un liaoyi deng (成唯识论了义灯) are considered basic reading for the student of Consciousness-only.


      Obstruction, hindrance.


      The Zhongbian fenbie lun; abbreviated as Zhongbian lun 中边论 and also known as the Bian zhongbian lun 辩中边论: the Madhya^nta-vibha^ga (Analysis of the Middle and the Extremes). A seminal Yoga^ca^ra text that is traditionally said to be a writing of Maitreya 弥勒 with Vasubandhu's commentary, but is considered by scholars to more likely be the joint effort of Asan%ga 无著 and Vasubandhu 世亲. The special focus of this text is on the Yoga^ca^ra articulation of the meaning of mistaken discrimination 虚妄分别 vs. the meaning of emptiness of inherent nature 空性, with the aim of breaking attachment to extreme notions of emptiness 有 and existence 无. There are two Chinese translations: (1) Three fascicle translation by Xuanzang (T 1600.31.464-477). (2) Two fascicle translation by Parama^rtha 真谛 (T 1599.31.451a-463)


      The Madhya^nta-vibha^ga; see prior 中边分别论.


      (1) The 'middle way,' a common term for the Buddhist path. In the earlier Pali literature it refers to a path that avoids the extremes of asceticism and self-satisfaction. (2) Later, during the development of Maha^ya^na Buddhism, especially as taught by Na^ga^rjuna 龙树 and others, it refers to the cultivation of the enlightened mindfulness which is not trapped in the extremes of nihi^ism or eternalism, or being and non-being. Also used as an informal term to refer to the Ma^dhyamika 中观派 school, which was founded by Na^ga^rjuna.(3) During the latter Silla in Korea, a school named Chungdo arose from somewhat uncertain origins, but which was not associated with the Sanlun school.


      During the "third period" of the Buddha's teaching (according to the Faxiang 法相 sect), the teaching of emptiness of the second period, and the teaching of the first period on existence are stopped in favor of the explanation of "neither emptiness nor existence" (Sam!dhinirmocana-su^tra 解深密经).


      The "middle way" school. (1) Zhongdao zong; the Ma^dhyamika school of Indian Maha^ya^na Buddhism, founded based on the philosophy of /su^nyata^ taught by Na^ga^rjuna 龙树, more commonly rendered in Chinese as 中观派 .(2) A Koryo period school in Korea, considered to be a later extension of the Popsong 法性 school.




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