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      The Zhongguan lun shou; T 1824.42.1a-169b.


      Ma^dhyamika, one of the major streams of Indian Maha^ya^na Buddhism which was to have a profound impact on all subsequent forms of Buddhism which arose in East Asia and Tibet. Based chiefly in the "middle way" 中论 philosophy of Na^ga^rjuna 龙树, the Ma^dhyamika thinkers sought to investigate a middle ground between the two extremes of existence 有 or non-existence 无 of things. Seen through the logic of dependent co-arising 缘起, all things were seen to be lacking of inherent nature 自性--to be empty 空. The most important successor to Na^ga^rjuna in the development of this school was a^ryadeva 圣提婆(170-270, also commonly written 提婆) who helped to complete the framework of the Ma^dhyamika system in his Catuh-/sataka 四百论, etc. He was followed a few centuries later by such figures as Buddhapa^lita (佛护, c.470-540), Bha^vaviveka (清辩, c. 490-570) and Candraki^rti (月称, c. 650), who worked out, each in their own ways various types of proofs for the explanation of and apprehension of the nature of emptiness. Some of the most important basic antagonistic positions within the broad Ma^dhyamika tradition can be seen in the disagreement between Bha^vaviveka and Candraki^rti: while Bha^vaviveka used one form of logical argumentation to establish the truth of emptiness in a positive manner, Candraki^rti denied the validity of the use of logical propositions which ended up affirming any sort of positive position. This basic disagreement would become embedded within the Ma^dhyamika school to the extent that two distinct philosophical factions developed: the Sva^trantika (Dulilunzhengpai 独立论证派), which basically followed the position of Bha^vaviveka and the Pra^san!gika (Guimiulunzhengpai 归谬论证派), which supported the opinion of Buddhapa^lita and Candraki^rti. Some later (eighth century) Ma^dhyamika thinkers such as S/a^ntaraks!ita 寂护 and Kamala/si^la 莲华戒 blended the Ma^dhyamika theories together with that of the Yoga^ca^ra movement, which had risen in popularity during the fifth century. The Three-treatise school 三论宗 which arose in East Asia was based primarily in the basic positions of the school's earliest thinkers, Na^ga^rjuna and a^ryadeva.


      by Zongmi 宗密. (Chart of the Master-Disciple Succession of the Chan Gate that Transmits the Mind Ground in China), in one fascicle, written between 830 and 833, in reply to PeiXiu's裴休 questions about the teachings and lineal filiations of four of the major Ch'an traditions current during the late Tang. It is in this text thatTsung-mi develops his critique of the Hongzhou Chan tradition.Z. 2-15-5.


      The Madhyamaka-/sa^stra; 4 fasc., attributed to Na^ga^rjuna; 龙树T 1564.30.1a-39c. Na^ga^rjuna's Madhyamaka-ka^rika^s is appended with notes by Pingala 青目. Kuma^raji^va 鸠摩罗什 translated it in 409, adding his own comments. This is the basic text for the study of Ma^dhyamika 中观派 thought. The text opposed rigid categories of existence 假 and non-existence 空, and denied the two extremes of arising and non-arising.





      中阴身 中有

      intermediate yin-body/yin-existence


      The intermediate state that one abides in immediately after death, before passing on to the next realm, or to rebirth (Skt. antara^-bha^va; Tib. bar ma do'i srid pa). This period of time, in which one exists as a "ghost" so to speak, is usually said to last between seven and forty-nine days. Also called zhongyin 中阴 and zhongyun 中蕴.




      Same as 中有 and 中阴.


      To finish and start over again. In the Maha^ya^na sutras a bodhisattva usually repeats his question to the Buddha three times in succession.


      Zhongnan DashiAnother name for Shan-tao 善导. 终南 Chung-nan is the name of the mountain monastery where he lived and taught.




      bell and board


      bell and drum


      (1) Seed, grain; cause, origin. Used metaphorically in Buddhism, especially in the school of Consciousness-only to refer to latent karmic power.


      The seed consciousness.


      Family, clan, blood lineage; especially a clan in the pre-modern sense of a large group of related people having the same surname. (Skt. gotra; Pali gotta) Etymologically, gotra is derived from go, which means "cattle" and √trai, which means "to protect." Thus the word originally referred to a fence which surrounded cattle. Applied to human beings, it refers to family boundaries of blood lineage, etc. Also translated into Chinese as 种性. In Yoga^ca^ra Buddhism 瑜伽行派 this term often refers to the spiritual predisposition one possesses based on the quality of the "seeds" in one's a^laya consciousness 阿赖耶识. In this sense, the term is even synonymous with "seeds" 种子.




      'Seed nature.' Also 种姓 (gotra). The predisposition of people; the temperament or nature of religious practitioners; the predisposition for buddhahood.


      The perfect buddha-wisdom that fully knows every single thing in existence (一切种智). Omniscience.


      (citra, citrata^, na^na^, vicitra). Various, diverse, varied. All sorts (shades, kinds, manner) of; every sort, manifold, multifarious, sundry.


      Seeds. The term originally refers to the seeds of plants, but is used in Buddhism in a metaphorical sense. (1) First, in a religion which relies so much on "cause and effect" theory, seeds are a metaphor for the causes 因 of things, but especially as causes of the afflictions. (bi^ja, bi^ja-dharma). [瑜伽论, T 1579.30.364a] (2) The potentiality for something to be produced. [T 1558.29.22c] (3) In Yoga^ca^ra Buddhism 瑜伽行派, the 'seeds' are one phase of the latent potentialities of all mental and physical elemental constructs which are stored in the a^laya consciousness 阿赖耶识. Coming into existence as the result of present activities and conditions, the seeds result in new potentialities, giving rise to continued existence which has a direct relationship to prior causes and conditions. [成唯识论T 1585.31.8, 瑜伽论T 1579.30.363c ](Tib. sa bon). Seeds are explained as having six characteristics.


      The six characteristics of seeds: (1) Momentariness 剎那灭. Seeds pass out of existence each instant, and produce corresponding new seeds which endure for one instant and then pass out of existence, producing corresponding new seeds, and so on. Seeds must be momentary because that which is eternal is incapable of producing. (2) 果俱有 Seeds must be simultaneous with their manifestations. (3) 恒随转 Seeds must function in tandem with their appropriate consciousness. (4) 性决定 Seeds must have the same moral nature as their manifestations. (5) 待众缘 Seeds can produce their manifestations only after the necessary associated causes are present. (6) 引自果 Each seed must produce its own peculiar manifestation and no other. These are defined in the Commentary to the Summary of the Great Vehicle. [摄大乘论释 T 1597.31.329b28-c10]


      The seed consciousness (bi^ja-vijn——a^na). A synonym for the container consciousness 阿赖耶识, indicating it as the place where seeds are contained and matured.




      Drom-ston-pa (a person’s name)


      (1) Many, a great number, a myriad. A crowd, many people. All. (Buddhism) (1) Audience, congregation, assembly (parsad). (2) Company, circle, group (naika^yika). (3) sam!gha. Defined variously as the harmony existing between three or more, four or more, five or more people. Practicing monks; disciples. (4) People in the world, all people. All (jagat).


      Sam!gha^ta-narakah!, where beings are crushed together, and made to enter forests which have leaves made of sword blades. Beings who have taken life and stolen are born here. The third of the eight burning hells 八热地狱.


      The "Catalog of Scriptures." A record made of the extant Tripitaka in China on several occasions during the development of the Buddhist tradition in China. There are three: (1) That compiled in 594 by the team of twenty scholars headed by Fajing 法经, also known as Fajing's catalogue (法经录). This was a comprehensive catalog of Chinese language sutras which was compiled by referring to all the listings of scriptures recorded in previous catalogues from the Six Dynasties period. The catalogue's systematic arrangement included 2,257 works in 5,310 fascicles, understood to be the total amount of sutras then extant in China. The compilers of this catalogue distinguished themselves by making clear note of the dubious provenance of such texts as the Renwang jing (仁王经; Sutra of Benevolent Kings) and the Dasheng qixin lun. 7 fasc., T 2146.55.115-149. (2) The five fascicle version compiled eight years later (602) during the Sui by Yancong (557-610) and a group of Buddhist experts, for the express purpose of distinguishing between extant and non-extant works, which had not been done in the prior catalog. This work is distinguished by the fact that it allows for the canonical inclusion of certain texts such as the Fanwang jing (梵网经; Sutra of Brahma's Net), Renwang jing and Dasheng qixin lun. (3) The five fascicle version by Qingtai 静泰、 T 2148.55.180c-218.


      "Sentient being." (1) All beings. In Buddhist scriptures, sentient beings are mentioned in contrast to buddhas, as those who are still bound in the suffering of sam!sa^ra, who are not yet enlightened; in this meaning, synonymous with 凡夫, which means "regular person," or "worldling." On the other hand, it is the awareness that is present in sentient beings--exactly their "sentiency" which is the quality of buddhahood itself. Therefore there is the Maha^ya^na doctrine of "all sentient beings are originally buddhas." (2) After the time of Xuanzang 玄奘, this term was translated into Chinese as youqing 有情 "having sentiency." In the Nirva^na-su^tra, it is clearly stated that 'sentient beings' means all things, even those things that we would normally consider inanimate, such as minerals, and that all of these things possess the Buddha-nature.


      The realm of sentient beings, as distinguished from the realm of the Buddhas. Among the ten realms , the first nine that are below the Buddha-realm are of this category.


      Attachment to sentient being-hood. A term used throughout the Prakarana^ryava^ca-/sa^stra as basically equivalent to the more common terminology of 我执, or "attachment to the notion of self." It is used in contradistinction to the term 法执--attachment to elemental constructs.


      (sattva-sa^mya, dharma, nika^ya-saba^gha) 'Commonality of sentient beings.' One of the 24 elements not concomitant with mind in Consciousness-only theory. 同分 means 'to resemble.' The fact that all human beings possess common characteristics is called 'human commonality.' The power of human beings to be human beings, and accordingly, to be distinguished from dogs, cats, etc. In the same way the commonality of dogs, cats, etc. is established. This is also true of vegetable and mineral life. The fact that a human being, in the middle of his life, cannot suddenly change into a dog or cat, is due to this power.


      A general name for a Buddhist priest.


      Sam!ghabhadra. A younger Sarva^stiva^din contemporary of Vasubandhu, who criticized the latter's work on Abhidharma. Lived in Northern India during the fifth century CE. Putative author of the Apidamo shunzheng lilun 阿毗达磨顺正理论.


      <p>(1) Heavy, solid, grave, deep. (2) To place value on, to treat with respect. (3) A burden, baggage. (4) To pile up; again, over, repeat(edly). (Buddhism) (1) A serious crime; a crime that causes one to fall into hell. (2) To honor, respect, esteem, prize. (3) To repeat, again. (4) A counter for things piled up (i.e.,4 levels, etc.) (5) To be bound by defilement. (6) Heavy, important, weighty.


      Chinese translation of the Sanskrit geya;


      Reiterative Verses


      no obstruction in multiple manifestations


      (1) Around, go around, send around, revolve, circle. (2) Round. (3) Universal, all-embracing, pervasive. To function universally. (3) To reach, to extend to; the ultimate. (4) A full year.


      Extensive, universal. Extensively, or universally going and operating.


      ten aspects of contemplation on universal inclusion


      (1) The name of a bhiks!u named S/uddhipanthaka. (2) S/a^kyamuni's disciple Cunda.


      (1) Axis, axle, spindle, shaft. (2) A roller for a scroll.


      Charm, spell, incantation, mantra, dha^rani. Mantras and dha^ran!i^s are often found in Maha^ya^na sutras, and are especially prevalent in the scriptures of the Esoteric school 密教.




      The Zhouwushou (T 1034.20.17); see Qianzhuan tuoluoni guanshiyin pusa zhou 千转陀罗尼观世音菩萨咒


      The Zhouwushou nengmie zhongzui qianzhuan tuoluoni jing (T 1034.20.17); see Qianzhuan tuoluoni guanshiyin pusa zhou 千转陀罗尼观世音菩萨咒。




      (1) A pearl. (2) A round jewel. (3) Something beautiful.


      (1) Many, all, various, the various; myriad. A plural indicator. (2) This; with this, using this, concerning this. (3) Locative: in, at, on, etc. (于). (4) A question marker.

      诸恶莫作 众善奉行

      Don’t do any evil, Offer up all good conduct.


      (sarva-vastu^ni, sarva-dharma); 'all dharmas.' All the elemental constructs that make up an individual. All things.




      The teaching that all dharmas are only names.


      The true marks of all elemental constructs (Muller); all things are ultimately real (Reeves); the variety of phenomenal things expresses the real state of the universal and ultimate truth (JE Dict.). [法华经 T 262.9.5a10]In the Sanlun school 三论宗, this kind of teaching reflects an overcoming of attachment to extremes of emptiness as well as existence. Tiantai, Chan, Nichiren and Jo^do shinshu^ also have their own special interpretations of this concept.


      All things lack inherent identity (self) (Skt. nira^tma^nah! sarva-dharma^h!). One of the three seals of the Buddhist teaching 三法印.


      The Zhufo jihui tuo luo ni jing; Skt. Sarvabuddha^n%gavati^-dha^ran!i^; Tib. sangs rgyas thams cad kyi yan lag dang ldan pa (To.513/856); (Dha^ran!i^ of the Endowment of All Buddhas). (1) 1 fasc. (T 1346.21.858-860), Dha^ran!i^ of the Gathering of All Buddhas 诸佛集会陀罗尼经, trans. Devaprajn——a^ 提云般若.

      (2) 1 fasc. (T 1347.21.860), Dha^ran!i^ of Abolishing Calamities 息除中夭陀罗尼经, trans. Da^napa^la 施护. Alternate translation: 诸佛集会陀罗尼经 (T 1346).




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