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英汉词典170

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      Pravarana

      

      (1) Ancestor, origin. (2) Head, chief. (3) Patriarch. (4) A clan of single ancestry. (5) A certain teaching or tradition which has come from a certain source.

      宗奉

      To revere; to worship and honor.

      宗镜录

      Zongjing lu; (Record of the Mirror of Orthodoxy). 100 fasc., compiled by Yánshòu 延寿 in the Song dynasty, completed in 961. A massive collection of portions of sutras, treatises and teaching records from India and China. Also called 心镜录. Yanshou, primarily of Tiantai background, was a strong believer in the need for an integrated approach to scriptural study and meditation practice, and thus compiled this work in an effort to enhance the integrated approach. T 2016.48.417b-957b.

      宗喀巴

      Tsong-kha-pa

      宗喀巴/宗喀巴祖师

      TSONG-KHA-PA / TZONG-KA-PA

      宗密

      Zongmi (780-841), also commonly referred to by the monastic title of Guifeng 圭峰. Tang dynasty scholar-monk, installed as fifth patriarch of the Huayan schools as well as a patriarch of the Heze 荷泽 Chan lineage. He wrote a number of vitally important essays on the current situation of Buddhism in Tang China, and is one of the most important figures in East Asian Buddhist history in terms of providing modern scholars with a clear analysis of the development of Chan and Huayan and the general intellectual/religious climate of his times. Unlike some of his more radical and cryptic Chan contemporaries, he was a sober-minded and meticulous scholar who wrote extensive critical analyses of the various Chan and scholastic sects of the period, as well as numerous scriptural exegesis. Zongmi was, like many later Korean monks on whom he extended his influence, deeply interested in both the practical and doctrinal aspects of Buddhism, and especially concerned about the means of the harmonization of the views of those who tended toward exclusivity in either direction. Zongmi studied deeply all the major texts of the Chinese Buddhist canon of his time, specializing in those works with Huayan, tatha^gatagarbha and Chan affinities. He was deeply affected by Huayan thought and is famous for his work in the area of doctrinal classification, i.e., attempting to account of the apparent disparities in the Buddhist doctrines by categorizing them according to their specific aims. Although he conducted other important studies on texts such as the Huayan jing 华严经 , Awakening of Faith 起信论, and Diamond Sutra 金刚经, and dealt with such issues as the rapprochement of the three teachings and the relationship of various schools of Chan, Zongmi's work on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (Yuanjue jing 圆觉经)was the centerpiece of his scholarly career. His most important work on the sutra was his Yuanjue jing da shou (Great Commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圆觉经大疏). During the process of finishing this work, Zongmi wrote a series of abridgments, expansions and digressions on it. Other noted works include the Renyuan lun (人源论Inquiry into the Origin of Humanity; see Gregory (1995)) and the Chanyuan zhuquan jidu (禅源诸诠集都Origins of the Various Chan Teachings). For a full-length study of Zongmi's thought see Gregory (1991).

      宗师

      An eminent monk who possesses learning and virtue, and serves as an instructor and guide for a practitioner, especially in the Chan school. (2) In Chan and other sects, a patriarch.

      宗要

      The basic doctrine of a particular scripure. A genre of commentary, especially used by the Korean monk Wonhyo.

      宗旨

      (1) The basic meaning, aim, motive or gist. (2) In the Chan school, the source of the Buddha-dharma. Original idea. The reference point of religious practice. (3) The main principle or teaching of a particular sect.

      宗座

      HIS HOLINESS

      综理众经目录

      The Zongli zhongjing mulu (Comprehensive Catalog of Scriptures); The first classical period Chinese catalog of Buddhist works, by Daoan 道安 (312-385), compiled in 374 (not extant); generally known by the abbreviated title Anlu 安录 (An's Catalogue).

      总

      (1) Overall, in general, generally speaking (pin!d!a-artha). (2) Undiscriminated, undifferentiated. (3) The whole (body) all, complete(ly). (4) Together, in combination, in total. (5) A nature or quality shared in common (Skt. sa^ma^nya; Tib. spyi). (6) An abbreviation of 总持 (dha^ran!i^).

      总报

      'Species reward', 'general reward.' In contrast to 别报 'specific reward.' A term referring to the aspect of the commonality of the reward of a very broad nature, such as the species that a living being is born as. For example, whether or not a being will be reborn as a human, dog, or horse is determined by this kind of karma, but whether one will be reborn as male or female, rich or poor, weak or strong, will be determined by specific reward karma. Also written in Chinese as 满业 and as 引业.

      总别

      The general and specific aspects present in a discussion about a phenomenon or doctrine. For example five types of affliction might each have distinctive 别 characteristics, but still be generally the same 总, in their all being affliction. Similar in usage to 通别.

      总持

      To hold to the good, trying not to give rise to evil. To completely retain the Buddhist teachings (dha^ran!i^). 'Total retention.'

      总持宝光明经

      The Zongchi baoguangming jing, abbreviated title of the Dafangguang zongchi baoguangming 大方广总持宝光明经.

      总结

      Summary; to sum up.

      总名

      A general (generic) name or term for something.

      总说

      (1) To explain generally; a general term; a general definition. To be put into one group.

      走火入魔

      catch on fire and enter a demonic state

      足

      (1) A leg, foot; the leg or foot of a chair, etc. (2) Be enough, be sufficient. (3) To make it be enough or sufficient; to add to, increase.

      足上戒取

      The inverted view of attachment to the precepts. One of the two forms of mistaken attachment to the precepts, wherein the practitioner, holding a basic misunderstanding of the Buddhist principle of cause and effect, arbitrarily creates and practices precepts that are erroneous. 

      族

      (1) A clan, a tribe, a family (anvaya). (2) A class; to collect together. (3) To destroy the whole family for one member's crime.

      诅咒

      incantation

      祖师

      patriarch

      祖堂

      ancestor's hall

      祖衣

      host’s robe

      纂要

      "Collected essentials." A type of East Asian commentarial style, as seen in such titles as 金刚经疏论纂要 and 五家宗旨纂要.

      钻火

      To make a fire by rubbing two sticks together.

      最澄

      Saicho^ (767-822) the founder of the Japanese Tendai school 天台宗. His involvement with Buddhism began at the age of 12, when he became the disciple of Gyo^hyo^ 行表 of Kokubunji 国分寺 temple in o^mi 近江, receiving initial instruction in the disciplines of the Northern school of Ch'an. He formally entered the sangha at 14, and after receiving the full precepts at the age of 19 at To^daiji 东大寺, he moved on to Mt. Hiei 比睿山 where he pursued the practice of meditation and the study of Huayan. But he was most enamored with the teachings of T'ien-t'ai, to which he became acquainted through the readings of the texts of Chih-i 智顗;. His reputation as a scholar-monk spread to the extent that he was offered the opportunity for a temporary travel grant from the emperor Kammu to study Buddhism in Tang China for the purpose of settling on a form of Buddhism appropriate for Japan. He embarked in 804, in a fleet of ships which also carried his famous colleague Ku^kai 空海. In China, Saicho^ became the pupil of the Niutou 牛头 Chan master Hsiao-jan 翛禅. He studied Tiantai under Daosui 道邃, Zhenyan (Jap. Shingon 真言) under Shunxiao 顺晓, none of which had yet existed as independent sects in Nara. He returned to Japan the following year, and in 806, officially established the Japanese Tendai sect. But although mostly influenced by Tendai doctrine, he also had, through his relationship with Ku^kai, a strong interest in Shingon, and so his own system tended to be a blend of teachings. Saicho^ spend the remainder of his days in the propagation of his own understanding of Buddhism in and around the Mt. Hiei area, but meeting with frequent opposition from the earlier established schools, especially in regard to reforms that he attempted, as he sought to rationalize some of the Maha^ya^na ordination ceremonies. He wrote prolifically, some of his more important works being the Shugo kokkaisho^ 守护国界章, the Hokkeshu^ku 法华秀句 and the Kenkai ron 显戒论. . Translated by Xuanzang 玄奘 in 649 at Dacien Monastery. One fascicle, T 691. The Buddha explains the merits of the three reliances 三归, five precepts 五戒, and complete precepts 具足戒 for a^nanda 阿难. Full title is 佛说最无比经.

      最后身

      The final body taken in the world of sam!sa^ra, referring to the body of an arhat 阿罗汉, who has extinguished all afflictions and will not be reborn (antima-deha, antima-sari^ra). In the same sort of sense, depending on the context, it can be used more loosely to refer to the final body of a buddha, or an enlightened sage such as a pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva. 

      最呐

      Ch'oenul (1717-1790), Choson Son monk, author of the Chegyong hoeyo 诸经会要.

      最上乘论

      The Ch'oesangsung-ron; T 2011.48.377a-379b.

      最上大乘金刚大教宝王经

      The Zuishang Dasheng jingang dajiao baowang jing; (Vajragarbharatnara^ja-tantra). 2 fasc. (T 1128.20.542), trans. Fatian 法天.

      最上秘密那拏天经

      The Zuishang mimi nanatian jing; Skt. S/ravanasyaputranad!agupila^ya-kalpara^ja (King of Ritual Procedures for the God Nad!a). 3 fasc. (T 1288.21.358-367), abbreviated as Nad!a Su^tra 那拏天经, trans. Faxian 法贤.

      最胜

      Most excellent, greatest, best, superior (Skt. parama, paramata^, agra, pravara; Tib. gtso bo).[二障义HPC 1.796a24]. The most predominant; the most influential.

      最胜子

      Jinaputra (late 6c. ?), also transcribed as 慎那弗呾罗, and 辰那弗多罗, abbreviated as 胜子. An early Indian master of Yoga^ca^ra, who was a student of Dharmapa^la 护法, and the author of the Yoga^ca^rabhu^mi-/sa^stra-ka^rika^ 瑜伽师地论释. He also wrote a commentary on Vasubandhu's Trim!sika^ 唯识三十颂.

      最无比经

      Supreme Incomparable Sutra

      最正觉

      Most true awakening; most correct enlightenment ( agra-bodhi ).

      最自在

      Greatest freedom; complete mastery.

      罪

      (1) Sin, crime, offense, fault, blame, misconduct. (2) To charge, to sentence, to punish. The result of evil activity--punishment.(3) To act contrary to the Way (adharma, avadya); killing, lying, stealing, etc.

      罪福

      Punishment and reward, evil karma and good karma. (dharma-adharma)

      罪业

      Evil activity; crime, fault, sin . . . carried out through the three media of word, thought and deed. (a/sukla-karman, karma-a^varana) 

      醉

      Get drunk, be intoxicated. Be deluded, confused.

      尊

      (1) Honorable, to honor, to venerate (pu^jita). (2) A sage or worthy (muni). (3) One who has perfected his/her practice; a buddha. (4) Excellent, superb.

      尊胜大师

      Bo-dong phyags-rnam-rgyal

      尊胜佛母

      NAMGYAELMA

      尊者

      A worthy; an adept practitioner who is worthy of respect; a venerable one; a high monk; an arhat. A sage (Skt. a^yus!mat; Pali a^yusmat). (2) A host; master, person in a position of responsibility.

      尊者众贤

      Sam!ghabhadra.

      遵

      (1) Follow, accord with, obey, learn. Keep, preserve. (2) To lead, be at the head of.

      作

      (1) To make, to create, to do, to establish. To write literature, compose music, create works of art, etc. To establish, to put forth, to finish. In Sanskrit, i^hate, karoti. (2) Function, activity (karman, kriya^). (3) That which has been made, formed or created, especially from conditions (krta^-katva, krta^). That (esp. afflictions) which is created from discrimination, as opposed to that which is spontaneously 任运 or innately arisen 俱生. [二障义 HPC 1.801c22](4) Act, deed, conduct (karman). (5) Occupation, vocation. (6) The person who makes (something). (7) Outwardly expressed activity. (8) One of the ten such-likes taught in the Lotus Sutra.

      作病

      The sickness of the belief that one can contrive to gain enlightenment. One of the four mistaken views 四病 described in the tenth chapter of the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圆觉经.

      作持

      To do good actions; positive religious practice, as contrasted to the practice of "stopping evil (zhichi 止持)."

      作得

      Obtained through effort, work, creation. The opposite of 生得 which means "inborn." 

      作犯

      To "create evil." To carry out evil actions, breaking the precepts.

      作佛

      Lit. to "make a buddha," which means, to become a buddha--to achieve final enlightenment. Same as 成佛.

      作集法

      A Buddhist council held to determine orthodoxy.

      作四谛

      The Four Created Noble Truths as opposed to the four uncreated noble truths. See the S/ri^ma^la^-su^tra, T vol. 12, p. 221b.

      作意

      (1) To pay attention (to); be attentive, aware, mindful (manasi-karoti). (2) The gathering of the attention, preventing it from scattering, focusing on a single object (manas-ka^ra). One of the ten great ground dharmas 十大地法 in the Abhidharmako/sa, equivalent to (cetana^). (3) One of the five pervasively functioning 五遍行 mental functions 心所 in Yoga^ca^ra.

      作用

      (1) Function, activity (vya^pa^ra, ka^ritra, pravartate). (2) The essential cause of something. Inducement, incentive, motive, cause. (3) The arising and cessation of existence. (4) Actual religious practice.

      作者

      creator

      作证

      To personally experience final enlightenment; to consummate the path of practice. The witness the enlightened state for oneself. (sa^ks!a^t-kr!ta)

      坐

      (1) To sit. (2) A seat. (3) Preserve, protect, hold to.

      坐高广大床

      The usage of a high, wide bed; prohibited for members of the Buddhist clery according to the ten precepts 十戒.

      座主

      prelate

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